XDSP CompliantCommetrex’ Signal Generator/Detector (SGD) furnishes all necessary functionality at the physical- layer level to support in-band telephony-signaling functions. Specifically, the SGD implements signal- processing functionality to generate and detect DTMF and Multi-frequency(MF) (R1/R2) digits as well as any generic in-band tone comprised of up to two frequencies. The SGD is compliant with the MSP Consortium M.100 recommendation, the Texas Instruments XDAIS algorithm packaging standard, the ECTF S.100 requirements for signal generation and detection, and the ITU Q.24 recommendation.

The baseline SGD is implemented and maintained in the C-language. More resource-efficient instances of the product are available for specific processors, such as the Texas Instruments TMS320C5400 and ‘C6000 DSPs and the ARC International ARCtangent customizable processor. Commetrex also plans to use the SGD in its MSP PCM Interface Boards.

Signal Generator/DetectorDTMF signaling is a mechanism used in the PCM- TDM telephone network to represent digits with tone frequencies in order to transmit them over an analog telephone line. DTMF signaling is primarily used to encode the dialed number generated by a subscriber terminal that is to be processed by the subscriber’s access device. In addition, DTMF is popular in interactive applications, such as telephone banking or voice-mail systems, in which the user can select options from a menu by sending DTMF signals from the telephone.

The SGD generates DTMF mathematically using two digital oscillators. One of the most frequently used detection algorithms, and the basis of the SGD’s detection, is the Goertzel algorithm, which efficiently extracts the spectral information from the incoming signal.

Signaling Systems R1 and R2 are designed for information exchange over toll facilities. Signaling System R1 is used in North America while R2 is used in Europe. Both systems use MF tones for signaling.

Design Overview

The SGD can be thought of as a media-stream transform (MST). For receive, it accepts a PCM sample stream from the telephone network and transforms it to a data and event stream for an application program. For transmit, it accepts commands from the application program and generates a PCM stream.

For example, in DTMF/R1/R2 tone generation, the input stream is transformed (encoded) from a sequence of digits to combinations of specified frequencies. In DTMF/R1/R2 tone detection, the input stream is transformed (decoded) from a harmonic signal of specified frequencies to a sequence of digits. The signal (DTMF, MF/R1/R2, and a generic tone) generator is implemented in one MST, the DTMF and a precise tone detector in another MST, and the MF (R1&R2) tones detector are in a third MST. The figure below shows the above partitioning of the signal generator/detector MSTs.

DTMF/MF and Precise Tone Generation

The TONE MST accepts the following commands.

Input Commands

Command NameDescription
Gen_dtmfStarts DTMF generation.
Gen _R1Starts MF/R1 generation.
Gen _R2FStarts MF/R2F generation.
Gen _R2BStarts MF/R2B generation.
Gen _toneStarts generic tone generation.
StopStops the TONE MST

Parameters

The tables below show the TONE MST user-defined parameters for DTMF, MF, and a generic tone generation.

DTMF and MF Parameters

Parm NameTypeDefaultUnitsDescription
Level 1INT-6dBmThe level of the low frequency component of the DTMF pair. Valid range – 43 to –3.
Level 2INT-4dBmThe level of the high frequency component of the DTMF pair. Valid range – 43 to –3.
LongPauseINT5000MsecThe delay associated with the ‘.’ (period) character. Valid range 0-65535.
Off TimeINT55MsecThe duration of the silence time between each DTMF digit. Valid range is 0–65535.
On TimeINT45MsecThe duration of each DTMF digit. Valid range is 0–65535.
ShortPauseINT2000MsecThe delay associated with the ‘,’ (comma) character. Valid range 0-65535.

Generic Tone Parameters

Parameter NameTypeDefaultUnitsDescription
Level 1INT-20dBmThe level of the first (or only) frequency component. Valid range – 43 to –3.
Level 2INT-4dBmThe level of the second frequency component (if any). Valid range – 43 to –3.
OffTimeINT0MsecThe duration of silence between tones on time. Specify 0 for no off-time. Valid range 0-65535.
OnTimeINT200MsecThe duration of the tone. Valid range is 1–65535.
FREQ1_Parm_1INTN/AN/AParameter 1 of the first (or only) frequency of the generated tone. Must be S.10 fixed point format. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ1_Parm_2INTN/AN/AParameter 2 of the first (or only) frequency of the generated tone. Must be S.10 fixed point format. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ2_Parm_1INTN/AN/AParameter 1 of the second frequency of the generated tone. Must be S.10 fixed point format. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ2_Parm_2INTN/AN/AParameter 2 of the second frequency of the generated tone. Must be S.10 fixed point format. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
IterationsINT1IntegerThe number of times to repeat the alternating tone and silence period. A count of –1 means repeat forever*. Otherwise the valid range is 1 to 32767.

* Therefore, if the Iterations parameter is set –1 and the Off-time parameter is set to 0, a continuous tone is produced.

DTMF and Precise Tone Detection

The DTMF MST implements the DTMF tone detection and the generic precise-tone detector. The generic tone can be up to two frequencies.

Input Commands

The TONE MST accepts two commands: one for the DTMF detector and another for the generic precise- tone detector.The commands accepted by the DTMF MST are listed in the table below.

Tone Commands

Command NameDescription
Detect_DTMFStarts detecting DTMF digits
Detect_ToneStarts detecting a specified generic tone
StopStops DTMF/Tone detection

Parameters

The tables below show the DTMF MST user-defined parameters for DTMF and a generic tone detection.

DTMF Tones Parameters

Parm NameTypeDefaultUnitsDescription
OffQualLevelINT-43dBmThe minimum signal level required to maintain recognition of a DTMF signal once recognition has started. The valid range is –43 to –15.
OffQualTimeINT40msThe minimum duration of absence of a recognized DTMF signal before end-of-digit event will be emitted. The valid range is 5 to 32767.
OnQualLevelINT-39dBmThe minimum signal level recognized as a DTMF signal. The valid range is –43 to –15.
OnQualTimeINT40msThe minimum duration of a recognized DTMF signal before a digit event will be emitted. The valid range is 23 to 32767.
MaxInterruptINT20msThe maximum time which a digit may be interrupted before it is deemed ended. Usually range is between 10ms to 50 ms.

Tones Parameters

Parm NameTypeDefaultUnitsDescription
OffQualTimeINT500msThe minimum duration of absence of detected tone before a tone-end event will be emitted. The valid range is 0 to 32767.
OnQualLevelINT-28dBmThe minimum signal level that will be detected. The valid range is –40 to 0.
OnQualTimeINT500MsThe minimum duration of a detected tone before a tone event will be emitted. The valid range is 22 to 32767.
FREQ1_Parm_1INTParameter #1 of the first (or only) frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ1_Parm_2INTParameter #2 of the first (or only) frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ1_Parm_3INTParameter #3 of the first (or only) frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ1_Parm_4INTParameter #4 of the first (or only) frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ2_Parm_1INTParameter #1 of the 2nd frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ2_Parm_2INTParameter #2 of the 2nd frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ2_Parm_3INTParameter #3 of the 2nd frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
FREQ2_Parm_4INTParameter #4 of the 2nd frequency of the generated tone. This parameter is computed from the desired frequency.
Bandwidth1INT70HzThe bandwidth of the 1st frequency.
Bandwidth2INT70HzThe bandwidth of the 2nd frequency.

The Input Data Stream

The input data stream consists of linear samples at 8000 sampling rate. Each call to the SGD to process the PCM stream is usually executed for 10 milliseconds of linear PCM data.

MF Detection

Commands

The MF MST accepts the following commands.

TONE MST Commands

Command NameDescription
Detect_MF_R1Starts detecting MF R1 tones
Detect_MF_R2BStarts detecting MF R2 backward tones
Detect_MF_R2FStarts detecting MF R2 forward tones
StopStops MF tone detection

The MF MST reports the following events:

Event Name (ID)ValueDescription
_BEGIN‘0’-‘9’, ’B’-‘F’MF digit begins.
_END‘0’-‘9’, ’B’-‘F’MF digit ends.
_DONEMF detection stopped.

MF Events

Tone Generation

The tone generation MST has a wait-for-dial-tone capability and the following performance specifications:

Frequency resolution+/-1 Hz
Dynamic level-33 dBm to 0 dBm (programmable), -9 dBm nominal
DTMF digits0-9, *, #, and ABCD per ITU-T Q.23 and Q.24
DTMF Rate10 digits/sec (programmable)
MF digits0-9, KP, ST, STP, KP2/STP2, and ST3 per US(R1) and ITU-T Q.321 European MFC/R2 forward/ reverse tones per ITU-T Q.441
Generic tone typeSingle or dual
Duration10 msec increments
Generic tone freq. Range200 to 4000 Hz

DTMF Detection

Dynamic Range-35 to -3 dbm
Minimum tone durationAs specified in Q.24; AT&T: 40 ms
Inter-digit timingDetects like digits with a 40 ms inter-digit delay. Detects different digits with 0 ms interdigit delay
Acceptable TwistAs specified in Q.24; AT&T: +4 dB to –8 dB
TalkoffPassing the Mitel and Bellcore talkoff requirements
SNR10 dB (reference to lowest amplitude tone)
Frequency ToleranceAs specified in Q.24; AT&T: +/- 1.5% < BW < +/-3.5%

MF Signaling Detection

Dynamic Range-35 to –3 dBm
Acceptable Twist6 dB
TalkoffTBD
Bandwidth+/2% Hz

Test Results

The Commetrex DTMF detector uses a windowing algorithm to meet all the frequency-tolerance requirements of Q.24. The following table contains the test results.

Decode Tests(All digits detected)
Frequency Tolerance TestsFrequencyPos DeviationNeg Deviation
6972.00%-2.20%
Low Band7702.00%-2.00%
8522.10%-2.00%
9412.00%-2.30%
12092.50%-2.70%
High Band13362.50%-2.70%
14772.70%-2.80%
16332.80%-2.90%
Twist TestsStandard TwistReverse Twist
Digit 13.9 dB8.0 dB
Digit 54.0 dB8.4 dB
Digit 94.0 dB8.2 dB
Digit D4.2 dB7.9 dB
Dynamic Range TestDynamic Range
Digit 129 dB
Guard Time TestMin Pause TimeMin Guard Time
Digit 1Configurable29.4 ms
Acceptable Signal to Noise Ratio Test
(-24dBV)pass8.0 dB
(-18dBV)pass
(-12dBV)pass
TALK-OFF Testzero hits (pass)

Texas Instruments TMS320C6000 Resource Utilization

Tone generator

MCPS single-sample:1.1
Program Memory:2.5K bytes
Constants/tables:900 bytes
Per-Instance Memory64 bytes

DTMF detector

MCPS single-sample:2.1
Program Memory:6.5K bytes
Constants/tables:340 bytes
Per-Instance Memory456 bytes